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Data on the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate to aquatic organisms and a review of human health effects are presented. Additionally, levels of the sulfate metabolite in water were up to 3 times greater than endosulfan shortly after heavy application of parent compound to adjacent rice fields Goebel et al. Evaluation of a Daphnia magna renewal life- cycle test method with silver and endosulfan. Endosulfan sulfate forms in both the presence and absence of ultraviolet radiation; its production is positively correlated with temperature Cassil and Drummond, The role of toxicity in the carcinogenicity of endosulfan.

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Endosulfan sulfate has been found in tissues of both fish and rats as well as in soils where it is reported to be more persistent than the parent compound McEwen and Stephenson, Mutagenicity of benazolin, metoxuron and paraoxon.

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The role of toxicity in the carcinogenicity of ct. Endosulfan sulfate forms in both the presence and absence of cfl radiation; its production is positively correlated with temperature Cassil and Drummond, A fish kill near Simcoe, Ontario. Effects of endosul- fan and its metabolites on rat liver mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities in vitro. Based on 8-hour time-weighted NO average concentrations in air Inhalation Studies: Therefore, the acute- chronic ratio was 21, which also falls within those ratios 4.

Effect of endosulfan in female rats growing on low and high protein cereal diet.

Endosulfan sulfate was the major form of endosulfan in liver, small intestine, visceral fat, and feces of mice fed endosulfan at 10 ppm for 28 days Deema et al.

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Endosulfan sulfate residues have been reported in fish tissues that were exposed to endosulfan. Guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses.

Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates. The advisory concentrations derived from these sources will vary in confidence and usefulness, based on the amount and quality of data used as well as the assumptions behind the original estimates.

Exposure to endosulfan in the diet of rats and ppm and mice 2 and 3. The investigation presented here evaluates data compiled ct, to the development of the endosulfan criteria and evaluates endosulfan sulfate data with respect to requirements for criteria development.

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Carcinogen NO Tumor incidence tests Incidence of NO tumor formation significantly more than the control for at least one dose levelor Data set which give the highest NO estimate of carcinogenetic risk, or Lifetime average exposure tests, or NO Human epidemiology studies NO if available, not required Threshold: Endosulfan sulfate has been detected in waters and sediments contaminated with the parent compound.

A planktonic crustacean NO cladoceran, copepod, etc.

The advisory concentrations should be used with caution, since they are derived from minimal experimental evidence, or in the case of SAR derived values, no data on the specific chemical. Data elements required for criteria develop- ment formulae as defined by EPA Stephan et al. Additionally, 48 hours of oral exposure to rats at Accumulation of endosulfan residues in fish and their predators after aerial spraying for the tsetse fly in Botswana. The range of acute values for the remaining fresh water invertebrate species was from 10 ppb for the snail Ancylus sp.

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A value given to protect aquatic life can be derived from no observed effect levels NOELthe lowest concentration found in the data which has been observed to cause acute or chronic toxicity or other ct data which may be applicable.

John Wiley and Sons, Inc. LD50 values for mice ranged from 6. The mean value for acute toxicity for Daphnia magna was ppb and the mean chronic value was 18 ppb.

Additionally, endosulfan sulfate showed negative results for mutagenicity in Ames tests Quinto et al. The advisory concentration for the protection of saltwater aquatic organisms is estimated to be 0. Although these values are in close agreement with acute values for the same species in the water quality criteria, detailed quality control methods were not mentioned in these studies. Levels of endosulfan sulfate cctl than 10 ppm had no effect on photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella while levels greater than 2 ppm caused decreased cell division.

Because of extremely high and variable doses of endosulfan and high incidences of neoplasms in control rats, the carcinogenicity of endosulfan to rats is uncertain from this study Reuber, cyl Pharmacology, vtl, and degradation of endosulfan. This criterion was based upon a no-observed-effect level NOEL of 0.